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태그 사이버폭력 , MIM , cyber bullying

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청소년 사이버폭력의 동기와 통제 요인에 관한 연구 : 모바일 인스턴트 메신저를 중심으로
제목 청소년 사이버폭력의 동기와 통제 요인에 관한 연구 : 모바일 인스턴트 메신저를 중심으로
저자 심홍진 ·한은영· 박병선· 박남기 조회 10622
게재지 기본연구 권호 기본연구 14-04
언어 KOR 페이지 1-221 (총 221 pages)
PDF pdf열기청소년 사이버폭력의 동기와 통제 요인에 관한 연구 : 모바일 인스턴트 메신저를 중심으로 발행일 2014.11.30
분류정보 통신 > 통신정책
통신 > 통신서비스 산업ㆍ시장
공정경쟁 > 이용자보호
1. 연구의 필요성 및 연구 목적
학교폭력이 미디어의 발전과 궤를 함께하며 고도로 진화하고 있다. 미디어의 발달 속도를 감안하면, 학교 폭력의 공간이 현실 공간으로부터 사이버 공간으로까지 급속도로 확장되면서 다양한 학교폭력 양상이 등장한다는 발상은 자칫 고루할 수 있다. 현실 공간에서의 일상이 스마트폰 등의 모바일 기기를 통해 끊임없이 사이버 공간으로 확장, 유인, 지속되면서 현실과 가상현실이 뒤섞이고 있기 때문이다. 이렇듯 현실과 가상공간의 혼재를 유도하는 대표적 미디어로 카카오톡을 위시한 모바일 인스턴트 메신저(Mobile Instant Messenger, 이하 MIM)를 들 수 있다. 문제는 이러한 MIM의 특성이 학교폭력과 결합되었을 때 기존의 사이버폭력에서 발견되지 않은 새로운 형태의 사이버폭력이 출현할 가능성이 크다는 데 있다. 뿐만 아니라 MIM상에서의 사이버폭력은 피해자를 자살에 이르게 할 정도로 심각성이 크다.
MIM에서 벌어지는 청소년들의 사이버폭력 양상은 그간 제기된 사이버폭력(cyber bullying)과는 사뭇 다르다. 그간의 사이버불링 수법은 인터넷에서 특정인을 모욕하거나, 토론방 등에서 피해자의 감정을 고의적으로 자극하고, 사이버 공간 내에서 특정인의 소문을 퍼뜨리고, 타인 ID로 몰래 인터넷 공간에 악성 댓글을 남기거나 이메일로 개인 사진 등을 유포하는 등 누군가를 협박하고 괴롭히는 행위는 물론, 허락없이 타인의 녹화 파일을 인터넷에 유포하는 것이 대표적인 사이버폭력 수법으로 제시된 바 있다(Cetin, Yaman, and Peker, 2011). 그리고 이와 같은 사이버폭력 행위를 유발하는 기저에는 익명성이 자리 잡고 있다.
이에 반해, MIM은 더 이상 익명성을 담보하지 않는다. MIM은 대부분 지인 네트워크를 기반으로 한 사회적 관계 위에 형성된 공간이다. 지인 네트워크의 기반은 곧 오프라인에서 이루어진 관계의 신뢰성을 바탕으로 한다는 점에서 MIM에서 형성되는 공간은 사이버 공간과 현실 공간을 긴밀하게 연결하고 있다. 게다가 MIM은 그룹채팅 등 MIM 고유의 커뮤니케이션 환경을 제공한다. MIM의 그룹 채팅과 사이버폭력이 결합될 경우 MIM은 그간의 사이버폭력에서 포착되지 않은 신종 사이버폭력의 온상이 될 수도 있다. 예를 들어 ‘카따’, ‘떼따’, ‘카톡감옥’ 등은 MIM의 그룹 채팅 상황에서 발생하는 집단배제와 집단고립이라는 더욱 악랄하고 은밀한 신종 사이버폭력의 사례에 속한다. 이와 같이 가상세계가 더해진 복합공간의 차원으로 폭력의 패러다임이 확장되고 폭력의 파급력과 지속성 또한 증대됨에 따라 새로운 폭력 패러다임에 대응하는 사이버 윤리 대책이 요구된다.
그동안 사회적 문제로 대두되었던 사이버폭력에 대해 실제적 대응책을 마련하려는 연구와 노력은 지속적으로 진행되었다. 그러나 기존연구들(예: 이승현․노성호, 2014; 윤해성․박성훈, 2013; 서울시립강북인터넷중독예방센터, 2014)은 스마트폰, 인터넷, 트위터 등의 SNS를 주요 분석대상으로 삼으면서 그 범위가 다소 포괄적인 경향이 있다. 즉, MIM상에서 이루어지는 복잡다단한 행위양상을 파악하고 그 동기와 원인을 파악하는 등 새롭게 나타나는 사이버폭력에 대한 입체적 대응방안을 모색하기보다는 단순한 실태 파악을 바탕으로 캠페인이나 예방교육 등 1차원적 대응방안을 제시하는 데 그치고 있다.
이러한 맥락에서, 이 연구는 그동안 출현하지 않았던 MIM의 미디어적 특성을 감안한 사이버폭력 예방 및 대응책을 선제적으로 모색하고, MIM 관련 사이버폭력에 대한 실증조사 및 분석을 통해 사이버폭력에 관한 정책 현장에서 활용할 수 있는 실효성 높은 대책을 제시하는 데 목적이 있다.
서 언···················································································································· 1
요약문··················································································································· 11
제1 장 서 론······································································································ 35
1. 연구의 필요성 및 연구 목적····································································· 35
2. 주요 연구내용···························································································· 38
제2 장 사이버폭력에 대한 이론적 이해···························································· 40
제1 절 사이버폭력의 개념과 범위·································································· 40
1. 사이버폭력의 개념과 특성········································································· 40
2. 사이버폭력의 유형과 구조········································································· 46
제2 절 사이버폭력의 실태와 유관 정책 ······················································· 48
1. 사이버폭력의 실태····················································································· 48
2. 사이버폭력 관련 대응 정책······································································· 54
제3 절 MIM에서의 사이버폭력에 관한 이론적 논의····································· 62
1. 사이버폭력에 관한 이론적 논의································································ 62
2. 기존 사이버폭력에 관한 이론적 논의의 한계··········································· 68
3. MIM에서의 사이버폭력에 적용 가능한 이론적 프레임 도출 배경··········· 70
제4 절 요약 및 소결······················································································· 75
제3 장 연구문제 및 연구방법 ·········································································· 78
제1 절 연구문제의 설정 ················································································ 78
1. MIM에서의 사이버폭력 현황 및 특성(연구문제 1) ··································· 78
4
2. MIM에서의 사이버폭력의 주요 요인(연구문제 2) ···································· 80
3. MIM 관련 사이버폭력의 예방 및 대응(연구문제 3) ································· 84
제2 절 연구자료 수집방법과 주요 변수························································· 85
1. 조사방법 및 조사 대상자의 선정······························································ 85
2. 조사 세부 내용·························································································· 86
3. 조사대상자의 특성····················································································· 88
제3 절 응답자의 MIM 이용현황 및 특성······················································ 89
1. MIM 이용 현황: 이용 서비스 및 이용시간 ············································· 89
2. MIM 이용 현황: 대화 상대······································································· 92
제4 장 주요 연구내용 및 결과 ········································································ 96
제1 절 MIM에서의 사이버폭력 현황 및 특성··············································· 96
1. MIM 사이버폭력의 가해 및 피해 현황 ··················································· 96
2. MIM 사이버폭력의 가해 및 피해 특성: 그룹채팅창에서 본인의 역할··· 108
3. MIM 사이버폭력에 대한 인식과 대응····················································· 110
제2 절 MIM 사이버폭력의 주요 요인 ························································ 116
1. MIM 이용동기에 따른 MIM 폭력 가해 및 피해 실태··························· 116
2. MIM 중독에 따른 MIM 폭력 가해 및 피해 실태·································· 120
3. MIM 이용 특성에 따른 MIM 폭력 가해 및 피해 실태·························· 122
4. 개인의 사회심리학적 성향에 따른 MIM 폭력 가해 및 피해 실태········· 126
5. 대화 상황에서 대화 구성원의 역할에 따른 MIM 폭력 가해 및
피해 실태································································································· 136
6. 가해 목적 및 가해에 대한 인식에 따른 폭력 가해 실태························ 138
7. MIM 사이버폭력 대응 방식과 폭력 가해 실태······································· 141
8. 환경적 특성과 MIM 폭력 가해 및 피해 실태········································ 143
제3 절 MIM 사이버폭력의 대응 및 예방····················································· 146
5
1. MIM 폭력 피해자의 대응 현황······························································· 146
2. MIM 폭력의 예방 유형··········································································· 148
제4 절 요약 및 소결····················································································· 149
1. 결 론········································································································ 149
2. 시사점······································································································· 154
제5 장 결론 및 시사점····················································································· 160
제1 절 요약 및 결론····················································································· 160
제2 절 시사점······························································································· 162
1. 학술적 시사점·························································································· 162
2. 정책적 시사점·························································································· 165
참고문헌············································································································· 173
[부 록] ··············································································································· 183
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