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소셜플랫폼의 확산에 따른 한국사회의 변화와 미래정책(Ⅲ) (총괄)
제목 소셜플랫폼의 확산에 따른 한국사회의 변화와 미래정책(Ⅲ) (총괄)
저자 이호영 ·조성은· 김희연· 한은영· 이항우· 배영· 문상현· 이장혁 조회 11659
게재지 기본연구 권호 기본연구 14-15-01
언어 Kor 페이지 1-191 (총 191 pages)
PDF pdf열기소셜플랫폼의 확산에 따른 한국사회의 변화와 미래정책(Ⅲ) (총괄) 발행일 2014.12.31
분류정보 통신 > 통신정책
통신 > 통신서비스 산업ㆍ시장
미래전략 > 미래사회ㆍ문화
지금으로부터 3년 전 우리는 소셜플랫폼(social platform)이 우리 사회에 도대체 어떤 가치를 전해줄 것이며 우리의 행동을 틀 지우는 사회구조를 어떤 방향으로 변화시킬 것인가라는 질문을 던지면서 이 연구를 시작하였다. 그 짧은 기간에도 글로벌 소셜미디어와 플랫폼의 판도에는 현저한 변화가 관찰되었고 페이스북(Facebook)처럼 특별히 성공하는 소셜미디어의 특성에 관심이 집중되기도 했다. 현재 소셜플랫폼의 트렌드는 협력, 공유, 오픈소스, 공동생산과 같은 것이다. 2015년의 연구는 이러한 트렌드가 가치, 라이프스타일, 문화 소비, 조직화 방식, 공동체에의 소속감 등에 새기고 있는 변화들이 미래사회에 던지는 시사점에 주목하였다.
전통적인 매스미디어는 콘텐츠를 수용자에게 실어 나르는 파이프와 같은 역할을 해왔다. 우리가 플랫폼이라고 말할 때 플랫폼은 정확히 이러한 파이프와 대조되는 단어라고 할 수 있다. 플랫폼은 생산자가 새로운 시장을 열 수 있도록 하는 생산수단의 민주화, 가치를 창출하는 원천의 전환, 즉 인하우스의 피고용인들로부터 협력자들과 외부인 이용자들로 이루어진 네트워크로의 가치 창출 주체의 전환, 그리고 유튜브(YouTube)의 사례에서 보듯 비즈니스가 콘텐츠의 소유를 포기하는 대신 생산자들과 소비자가 직접적으로 상호작용하는 시스템 등을 포함한다.
우리가 점점 더 익숙해져가고 있는 스마트폰의 애플리케이션 경제를 예로 들어보면 애플(Apple)과 구글(Google)은 상류에서 통제되는 파이프를 붕괴시키고 네트워크화된 플랫폼을 도입함으로써 게임의 룰을 변화시켰다. 이제 개발자는 앱스토어에 자신의 앱을 상품으로 내놓고 소비자는 원하는 앱을 다운받으면 된다. 사실 이러한 모델은 위키피디아에서 가장 좋은 사례를 찾을 수 있다. 그것은 단순히 세상의 정보를 조직화하는 새로운 방법에 그치지 않고 공급 사슬을 재조직화하는 방법이기도했다.
소셜플랫폼 확산의 우려와 역기능에 대한 지적에도 불구하고 전 세계의 이용자들은 계속해서 늘어나고 있으며 또 적극적 이용자의 수도 더욱 증가해왔다. 특히 소셜플랫폼에 기반한 네트워크가 스마트 기기 및 모바일 네트워크의 확산과 함께 이루어졌다는 사실은 대단히 중요하다. IDC는 향후 모바일이 데스크톱보다 더 많은 수익을 창출할 것이며 기업 분야 IT의 성장 중 43%의 지분을 차지할 것이라고 예견한바 있다(IDC, 2012). 모바일 커머스와 모바일 마케팅 수익은 각각 2015년 1,190억 달러와 560억 달러에 이를 것으로 예측되고 있다. 이런 변화는 우선적으로 산업적 관심을 끌고 있고 비즈니스계의 이목을 집중시키지만 연결 그 자체와 이동 중이면서 연결하는 사람의 증가는 모바일 기반 소셜플랫폼이 가져올 영향력에 대한 사회학적 성찰 역시 요구하고 있다.
모바일 네트워크에 기반한 미디어는 무엇보다도 자신에게 지금 물리적으로 가용한 수단과 사람을 넘어서는 다른 사람들과 자원을 소구한다. 예를 들어 여행하는 사람들을 위해 자신의 집을 공유해서 돈을 벌 수 있는 에어비엔비(Airbnb)의 경우 오직 ICT의 도움만으로 새로운 비즈니스 영역을 확장한 사례다. 사실 이 사업은 오래 전부터 민박이라는 형식으로 존재해 왔지만 이를 모든 사람이 접근 가능한 하나의 플랫폼으로 만들고 전 세계를 연결함으로써 성공을 거두었다. 일종의 숙박업계 클라우드 서비스인 에어비앤비는 현재 1만 9,000개가 넘는 도시에서 서비스되고 있다.
이는 이용자의 과거 웹 이용경험과 역사에 기반을 둔 것으로 전형적인 소셜 평판 시스템과 더불어 가동된다. 이처럼 사회관계의 가시화는 웹 1.0과 2.0에서 미결의 상태로 남겨져 있던 온라인 ID에 대한 오프라인 비즈니스에서의 신뢰 문제를 단번에 해결하였다. 소셜플랫폼이 기반이 된 서비스에서는 다른 사람들의 평판이 정보를 거르는 데 대단히 중요하다. 포털사이트뿐만 아니라 소셜미디어의 뉴스피드를 통해, 또 스마트폰의 앱을 통해 들어오는 수많은 정보들을 헤치고 우리가 원하는 정보를 받기 위해서는 필터링이 필요하다. 실제로 레이니와 웰먼(Rainie & Wellman, 2012)은 사람들이 주의와 의미의 단서로서뿐 아니라 자신들의 대응을 결정하기 위해 SNS를 활용한다는 사실을 밝혀냈다. 소셜플랫폼의 네트워크는 무엇보다도 연결을 기반으로 하며 그 연결은 일종의 무상 기여를 통해 이루어지고 있다.
또한 소셜플랫폼은 글로벌화되었다. 2014년 4분기 글로벌웹인덱스를 보면 소셜플랫폼의 주도권은 로컬 플랫폼에서 글로벌 플랫폼으로 꾸준히 옮겨졌다.1) 페이스북, 트위터(Twitter)의 글로벌 성장세는 두드러졌다. 전 세계 인터넷 사용자의 21%가 트위터를 적극적으로 이용하고 있는 것으로 집계되었으며 유튜브는 21%, 페이스북은 51%에 달하는 것으로 나타났다. 여기서 적극적 이용자는 한 달에 한 번이라도 로그인한 가입자를 의미한다.
서 언 ······················································································································ 1
제 1 장 서 론 ········································································································ 9
제 1 절 연구의 배경 및 목적 ············································································ 9
1. 연구의 배경 ·································································································· 9
2. 연구의 목적 ································································································ 14
제 2 절 연구사업의 내용과 추진체계 ······························································ 17
1. 연구사업의 내용 ························································································· 17
2. 연구사업의 추진체계 ·················································································· 18
제 2 장 소셜미디어의 사회적 순기능과 역기능 ·················································· 21
제 1 절 소셜미디어의 사회적 기능 ·································································· 21
1. ICT 트렌드와 소셜미디어 ·········································································· 21
2. 소셜미디어의 성장과 변화 ········································································· 22
제 2 절 소셜미디어의 순기능과 역기능 ··························································· 25
1. 소셜미디어의 순기능 ·················································································· 25
2. 소셜미디어의 역기능 ·················································································· 29
3. 소결 ············································································································ 34
제 3 절 소셜미디어 이용 행태와 사회적 기능 ················································ 34
제 4 절 매체 다양성 효과 ················································································ 44
1. 특정 이슈에 대한 인터넷 미디어간 의미연결망 분석 ······························· 44
2. 분석 결과에 따른 매체간 담론 차이 ························································· 45
제 5 절 소 결 ··································································································· 48
제 3 장 소셜플랫폼과 문화산업 ·········································································· 51
제 1 절 플랫폼의 정의와 특성 ········································································· 51
제 2 절 플랫폼으로서의 소셜미디어와 문화산업 ············································· 57
제 3 절 모바일 미디어의 확산과 소셜플랫폼의 진화 ······································ 61
제 4 장 글로벌 시대 소셜미디어와 디지털 문화정책의 미래 ····························· 68
제 1 절 소셜플랫폼과 정보의 확산 ·································································· 68
1. 네트워크의 특성과 정보 확산 ···································································· 68
2. 소셜플랫폼상 정보 확산 형태 ···································································· 69
제 2 절 글로벌 미디어 기업의 모바일 소셜플랫폼 대응전략 ·························· 72
1. 글로벌 소셜미디어 기업의 모바일 전략: 페이스북, 트위터, 유튜브 ········· 72
2. 글로벌 미디어 기업의 소셜플랫폼 활용과 모바일 전략 ···························· 76
제 3 절 국내 문화산업의 모바일-소셜 전략 ·················································· 79
1. 미디어 기업과 유튜브의 제휴 ···································································· 79
2. 국내 미디어 기업의 모바일 전략: N스크린 ··············································· 80
제 4 절 문화콘텐츠 관련 정보 공유와 확산 ···················································· 80
1. 검색으로 본 콘텐츠 정보 유통 ·································································· 81
2. 소셜미디어로 본 콘텐츠 정보 유통 ··························································· 82
제 5 장 소셜미디어와 참여자 보상 ····································································· 84
제 1 절 소셜미디어와 자유노동 ······································································· 87
1. 자유노동: 자발적 제공, 자율적 조직 ······················································· 87
2. 자유노동: 무료 제공, 사적 전유 ································································ 94
제 2 절 자유노동과 보상 ·················································································· 98
1. 콘텐츠 산업의 보상: 디지털 저작권 관리 ················································· 98
2. 시장주의적 보상: 마이크로페이먼트 ························································ 102
3. 소결 ·········································································································· 108
제 6 장 건전한 소셜네트워크서비스 문화를 위한 형사정책 ····························· 109
제 1 절 소셜플랫폼과 형사정책 ····································································· 110
1. SNS 범죄에 대한 형사실체법적 접근 ······················································ 110
2. SNS상의 명예훼손과 모욕행위 ································································ 111
3. 사이버불링 혹은 사이버 따돌림 ······························································ 112
4. 사이버스토킹 ···························································································· 118
5. 사이버사칭과 사이버사기 ········································································· 119
제 2 절 SNS 법제도 정책동향과 대응방안 모색 ··········································· 121
1. 성범죄 관련 주요 동향 ············································································ 121
2. SNS와 빅데이터, 그리고 개인정보 보호 ················································· 122
3. 사이버 공간에서 (형)법적 대응의 한계 ··················································· 127
제 7 장 결론 및 정책적 시사점 ········································································ 129
제 1 절 소셜플랫폼의 사회문화적 영향 ························································· 129
1. 선호에 기초한 네트워크와 승자독식 ······················································· 129
2. 소셜미디어와 감시사회 ············································································ 132
3. 소셜미디어와 사회자본 ············································································ 132
4. 프라이버시 없는 사회 ·············································································· 133
제 2 절 정책적 시사점 ··················································································· 134
1. 사회문화적 측면 ······················································································· 134
2. 저작권 측면 ······························································································ 134
3. 프라이버시 측면 ······················································································· 135
4. 콘텐츠․서비스 다양성 및 창작 환경 측면 ············································· 137
5. 형사정책적 측면 ······················································································· 138
참 고 문 헌 ········································································································ 139
[부 록] 소셜플랫폼 전문가 조사 ········································································ 150
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