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소셜 미디어의 이용자 유형과 사회적 순기능.역기능
제목 소셜 미디어의 이용자 유형과 사회적 순기능.역기능
저자 조성은 ·한은영· 석지미· 김도훈 조회 12786
게재지 기본연구 권호 기본연구 14-15-03
언어 Kor 페이지 1-221 (총 221 pages)
PDF pdf열기소셜 미디어의 이용자 유형과 사회적 순기능.역기능 발행일 2014.12.31
분류정보 통신 > 통신정책
통신 > 통신서비스 산업ㆍ시장
미래전략 > 미래사회ㆍ문화
ICT 트렌드에 소셜미디어가 사라진 지 오래이다. 하지만 소셜미디어가 주요 ICT 트렌드 리스트에서 사라졌다고 해서 그 영향력이 사라진 것은 아니다. 오히려 ICT 트렌드를 뒷받침하는 인프라로서 깊숙이 자리매김하고 있다. 집단지성을 비롯해 공유경제, 소셜평판시스템, 소셜마케팅/비즈니스, 사물인터넷 등의 트렌드는 소셜미디어의 연결망과 밀접히 관련되며, 소셜미디어의 디지털 흔적들은 빅데이터 분석의 자원으로서도 중요하다. 이용자들은 소셜미디어의 연결관계로 자신의 사회관계 정보를 인터넷에 남기고 있으며, 지리적 위치나 개인의 취향 및 생활 패턴 등에 대한 다양한 디지털 흔적도 남기고 있다. 이 디지털 흔적들은 향후 빅데이터 분석의 중요한 자원이 될 것이며, 소셜미디어 계정이 온라인 자아 역할을 하는 만큼 클라우드 컴퓨팅, 사물인터넷과 결합하면서 온라인 자아의 라이프로그는 물리적 세계의 자아와 거의 일치하는 융합적 자아로서 일정 수준의 사회적 역할을 부여받을 것이다.
이러한 소셜미디어의 사회적 가치를 염두에 두고 현재 시점에서 소셜미디어의 사회적 기능을 되짚어 보기 위해, 본 연구보고서에서는 소셜미디어의 사회적 순기능과 그것의 반대급부인 역기능에 대해 살펴봤다. 소셜미디어의 순기능과 역기능은 사회관계와 소통효과 및 정보유통과 관련해서 논의되었다. 또 역기능과 관련해서는 프라이버시 침해나 중독 등 개인적 수준으로 논의되어 왔던 역기능뿐만 아니라 소셜비즈니스와 함께 부각되기 시작한 사회적 수준의 역기능도 함께 살펴봤다.
소셜미디어의 순기능으로 무엇보다 사회자본의 확대를 꼽을 수 있다. 사회자본은 크게 결속자본(bonding social capital)과 매개자본(bridging social capital)으로 구분되며, 특히 매개사회자본의 크기를 높이는 데 상대적으로 기여한 것으로 평가되고 있다. 소셜미디어를 통해 연결된 매개사회자본은 사회적 배경의 다양성 덕분에 소통과 정보 습득의 다양한 경로로 활용되며 나아가 심리적 안정과 사회적 지지(social support)를 얻는 기회를 제공한다. 소통 및 정보유통 측면에서 소셜미디어의 순기능은 소통 및 정보유통 비용의 감소뿐만 아니라 사회적 투명성과 신뢰 형성, 시민 참여 및 집단지성의 확대 등을 꼽을 수 있다. 또 사회적 투명성과 신뢰 확보의 측면도 개인적으로 소셜 평판을 통해 사회적 신뢰를 확보하는 순기능을 경험하지만 사회적으로는 공적 기관이나 기타 사회조직이 혜택을 받는 측면이 크다. 대기업 CEO들의 트위터 활동이나 정부기관의 다양한 소셜미디어 계정 운영도 사회적 투명성과 신뢰확보를 위한 소통 전략의 하나였다. 마지막으로 소셜미디어를 이용해 시민 참여 활동과 집단지성의 효과를 높이는 순기능도 기존 연구에서 증명되었다. 트위터를 통해 집합행동을 살펴본 세게버그와 버넷(Segerberg and Bennet, 2011)에 의하면 트위터나 페이스북과 같은 소셜미디어 자체에 내장된 연결 메커니즘(networking mechanism)이 자율적인 정보 흐름을 통해 자생적 게이트키핑을 만들어내고 이러한 정보유통이 동원을 조정(coordination)하는 연결망으로 그대로 전이될 수 있다고 본다.
위에서 제시한 순기능은 마치 동전의 양면처럼 역기능을 동시에 품고 있다. 우선 소셜미디어 효과가 사회자본의 불평등과 다양성 저해로 나타날 수 있다. 낯선 이와 관계 맺기를 꺼려하거나 소셜미디어 이용 자체를 거부하는 이들은 사회자본 형성의 혜택에서 배제된다. 또 소셜미디어의 장점으로 꼽혔던 사회자본의 다양성은 그 안에 형성된 연결관계가 끼리끼리의 모임으로 형성된다면 오히려 저해되는 결과를 초래한다. 소셜미디어를 통해 연결망이 증가하고 이들 연결망으로부터 지속적으로 정보가 유통되고 소통이 일어날 때 정보과잉의 역효과도 나타난다. 또 잘못된 정보가 유통되는 데 따른 사회적 비용도 고려할 필요가 있다. 이 경우 정보유통 및 소통 비용이 감소하는 것이 아니라 오히려 증가하는 역효과가 나타난다. 사생활 침해 가능성은 가장 빈번하게 이야기되는 역기능이다. 특히 소셜미디어의 서비스 인터페이스 자체가 개인 사생활을 침해의 가능성을 부추기는 면이 있다고 할 수 있다. 사이버 따돌림이나 집단 괴롭힘 현상도 주목해야 하는 역기능이다. 사이버 따돌림은 지인들로 구성된 집단 연결망 내에서 행해지는 경향이 있는 만큼 소규모 동질 집단의 폐쇄적 연결망 내에서 주로 일어난다.
이상 소셜미디어의 순기능과 그에 대응되는 역기능에 대해 살펴보았다. 최근 소셜미디어의 역기능을 문제 삼아 규제의 필요성을 제기하는 목소리가 커지고 있다. 사회적으로 볼 때 순기능은 사회적으로 장려하고 역기능은 규제하는 것이 현명할지도 모른다. 하지만 앞서 살펴봤듯이 역기능은 순기능과 동전의 양면과 같은 측면이 있다. 이는 역기능을 규제하려고 했을 때 오히려 순기능을 막는 결과를 초래할 수 있다는 것이다. 그렇다면 역기능을 규제의 대상으로 보지 않고도 역기능으로 인해 초래되는 사회적 위험을 어떻게 해소할 수 있을 것인지를 먼저 모색해 볼 필요가 있을 것이다.
서 언 ···················································································································· 1
요 약 문 ··············································································································· 11
제 1 장 서론: 소셜서비스 정의 및 유형 ····························································· 17
제 1 절 연구의 배경과 필요성 ········································································· 17
제 2 절 연구의 목적과 내용 구성 ···································································· 19
제 3 절 소셜미디어서비스의 정의 및 유형 ······················································ 21
1. 진화하는 온라인 소셜 도구 ······································································· 21
2. 서비스 진화와 확장: SNS, 소셜미디어, 소셜플랫폼 ·································· 23
제 2 장 소셜미디어서비스의 변화와 특징 ··························································· 26
제 1 절 소셜미디어 시장의 변화 ····································································· 26
1. 융합 ············································································································ 28
2. 경쟁 ············································································································ 30
3. 소멸 ············································································································ 33
4. 소셜비즈니스 ···························································································· 35
제 2 절 소셜미디어서비스의 특징 ···································································· 44
1. 개방형 소셜미디어 ····················································································· 44
2. 준폐쇄형 소셜미디어 ·················································································· 51
3. 폐쇄형 소셜미디어 ····················································································· 55
제 3 절 소 결 ··································································································· 63
제 3 장 소셜미디어의 순기능과 역기능에 대한 이론적 고찰 ··························· 65
제 1 절 소셜미디어와 사회관계 ······································································· 66
1. 순기능: 사회자본의 증가와 정서적 안정성 ················································ 66
2. 역기능: 사회자본의 불평등 및 다양성 저해, 사생활 침해, 집단 괴롭힘 ·· 70
제 2 절 소셜미디어의 소통 및 정보유통 ························································· 79
1. 순기능: 소통 및 정보유통 비용감소, 사회적 신뢰, 참여 및 집단지성 ····· 79
2. 역기능: 정보과잉, 필터 버블, 사회적 비용 및 갈등 증가, 사회 통합 저해 ·· 82
제 3 절 맥락에 따른 소셜미디어 연결망 구성의 시사점 ································· 89
제 4 장 소셜미디어 이용 유형에 대한 설문 분석 ·············································· 93
제 1 절 소셜미디어 이용 형태 및 연결관계 분석 ··········································· 94
1. 설문조사 대상자 특성 ················································································ 94
2. 소셜미디어 유형과 활용 행태 ···································································· 96
3. 소셜미디어 유형과 연결관계 ···································································· 100
4. 소결 ·········································································································· 106
제 2 절 소셜미디어 효과 ················································································ 108
1. 사회자본 효과 ·························································································· 108
2. 자기효능감 및 프라이버시 염려 ······························································ 110
3. 역기능 ······································································································· 114
4. 소결 ·········································································································· 116
제 3 절 소셜미디어 이용 행태에 따른 이용자 특징 ······································ 119
1. 소셜미디어 이용 행태와 시간에 따른 분포 ············································· 119
2. 소셜미디어 이용 형태와 사회자본 및 역기능 ········································· 125
3. 소결 ·········································································································· 127
제 5 장 의미연결망 분석 결과: 특정 이슈에 대한 담론 비교 ·························· 129
제 1 절 연구의 목적 및 배경 ········································································· 129
제 2 절 연구 방법론 및 데이터 수집 절차 ···················································· 131
1. 의미연결망 분석 방법론 ··········································································· 131
2. 데이터 수집 및 분류 ················································································ 133
제 3 절 의미연결망 분석 결과 ······································································· 135
1. 미디어별 분석 결과 ·················································································· 135
2. 미디어간 특성 비교 ·················································································· 149
제 6 장 연구 결과 및 시사점 ············································································ 156
제 1 절 소셜미디어의 순기능과 역기능 ························································· 156
제 2 절 실증 연구 결과와 한계 ····································································· 159
1. 실증 연구의 결과 ··················································································· 159
2. 실증 연구의 한계 ····················································································· 166
제 3 절 시사점 ······························································································· 168
참 고 문 헌 ········································································································ 172
부록 1. 설문조사 대상자의 인구학적 분포 ························································ 184
부록 2. 설문조사 문항 ······················································································· 186
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