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고령화의 도전과 기회 - ICT를 활용한 대응의 국제적 논의와 시사점
제목 고령화의 도전과 기회 - ICT를 활용한 대응의 국제적 논의와 시사점
저자 남상열 ·한동교 조회 20531
게재지 기본연구 권호 기본연구 14-12
언어 KOR 페이지 1-207 (총 207 pages)
PDF pdf열기고령화의 도전과 기회 - ICT를 활용한 대응의 국제적 논의와 시사점 발행일 2014.12.31
분류정보 통신 > 통신정책
방송 > 방송정책
미래전략 > 미래사회ㆍ문화
미래전략 > 정보화
IT산업 > IT산업ㆍ시장
IT산업 > 인력ㆍ수요
오늘날 대부분의 주요 국가에서 고령화에 따른 사회․경제적 문제가 대두되고 있으며, 이에 대해 ICT 활용을 통한 더욱 효율적인 대응이 주목받고 있다. 하지만 기술 발전에 따라 ICT 환경이 빠르게 발전하고 있는데 비해 실제 이를 활용한 정책이나 사업은 발전이 더딘 상황이다. 이러한 배경에서 본 연구보고서는 고령화를 앞서 경험한 선진국들을 중심으로 글로벌 현안인 고령화에 대해 ICT를 활용한 대응 논의와 정책사례들을 분석하고, 향후 우리나라의 고령화 대응 및 ICT 활용 제고방안에 대한 시사점을 도출하고자 하였다.
먼저 고령화에 대응한 주요 국가 및 국제기구들의 논의와 ICT 활용사례 등을 살펴보고, 이를 바탕으로 고령화 대응정책 개발을 위한 시사점을 도출하고자 하였다. 또한, 고령화에 대한 우리나라 정부 주요 부처의 대응사례 및 선행연구들을 분석하여 향후 대응 효율화를 위한 시사점을 제시하고자 하였다. 좀 더 구체적으로는 영국, 미국, 일본, 중국 등 주요 국가의 고령화 현황 및 대응 노력을 살펴보고, 국제연합(UN), 세계보건기구(WHO), 유럽연합(EU), 경제협력개발기구(OECD), 국제전기통신연합(ITU) 등 주요 국제기구의 ICT 관련 대응 논의와 사업을 정리하였다. 우리나라의 경우에는 미래창조과학부, 산업통상자원부, 보건복지부 등 정부 관련 부처의 고령화 대응 및 ICT 활용에 대한 기본계획과 관련 세부정책들을 살펴보았다. 그 외에도 의료보건 서비스와 ICT의 융합(u-헬스)을 중심으로 고령화 대응 산업에 대한 주요 선행연구와 산업연관표를 통하여 관련 산업의 규모 및 특성에 대한 분석을 시도하였다. 분석결과 주요 국가 및 국제기구들은 고령화가 전 세계가 직면한 주요 사회현상임을 인지하고, 특히 2000년대 초반부터 고령자를 포용하는 정책 및 프로그램 개발을 집중적으로 추구해온 것으로 파악된다. 또한, 고령화에 대한 국제적 논의는 보건의료, 사회참여 및 인권의 영역 등에서 포괄적으로 이루어지고 있으며, 고령화 현상이 야기하는 사회경제적 비용부담을 ICT를 활용하여 감소시키고 더욱 효율적으로 대응하고자 한다는 점 등을 향후 고령화 정책 개발을 위한 시사점으로 도출할 수 있었다. 우리나라 또한 고령화에 대응하기 위해 다양한 측면에서 ICT의 활용이 추진되고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구보고서에서는 ICT를 활용하여 고령화에 대응하는 분야를 크게 원격의료 및 u-헬스를 포함하는 ‘의료보건 및 건강관리’ 분야와 고령자의 사회경제적 독립성 제고에 중점을 두는 ‘사회활동 참여’ 분야로 나누어 살펴보았다. 현재 우리나라에서 ICT를 활용한 고령화 대응 노력은 정부 주도의 시범사업 형태로 진행되고 있으며, 산업 및 민간 영역에서는 주요 기업과 병원이 협력하여 다양한 서비스를 제공하고 있는 것으로 파악되었다.
본 연구보고서는 이러한 분석결과를 바탕으로 ICT를 활용한 고령화 대응 관련 산업의 현황을 파악하고 도전과제를 도출하였다. 먼저 u-헬스와 관련한 주요 선행연구를 통해 국내 의료서비스산업의 GDP 대비 규모는 주요국에 비해 상대적으로 작은편이고, 관련 법률 및 제도의 제약으로 실시간 원격진료시장의 성장이 어려운 상황이었음을 확인하였다. 하지만 고령화에 따른 의료보건 서비스에 대한 수요의 증대, 복지와 삶의 질에 대한 인식 증대, 그리고 ICT 융합 기술의 발전 등에 따라 의료서비스산업은 구조변화를 겪고 있으며, 이에 따라 u-헬스가 효율적인 대안으로서 중점 정책으로 추진되고 있다는 사실 또한 확인할 수 있었다. 본 보고서에서는 고령화 대응 관련 산업을 크게 의료보건 및 사회복지서비스 부문과 ICT 부문으로 나누어 산업연관표를 통한 상호관계 및 구조분석을 하였으며, 투입-산출면에서 양 부문 간의 관계는 아직 긴밀하지 않으나 투입-산출, 고용 등의 구조에서 상당한 차별성 또는 잠재적인 상호보완관계를 파악할 수 있었다.
이러한 분석 결과를 바탕으로 본 연구보고서는 향후 우리나라의 고령화 문제에 더욱 효과적으로 대응하기 위한 주요 시사점을 다음과 같이 도출하였다. 첫째, 고령화의 빠른 진전을 고려하여 고령화 문제에 대한 사회적 인식을 제고하고, 변화하는 환경에 대해 민첩하게 대응할 수 있는 선제적인 정책대응이 필요하다. 둘째, 고령화에 따른 구조변화에 대한 포괄적이고 능동적인 대응을 하기 위하여 관련 법제도의 개선이 필요하며, 이에 관련된 주요 이해당사자들의 능동적인 참여와 역할분담이 요구된다. 셋째, 무엇보다 고령화의 직접 당사자인 고령자들을 수동적인 대응 및 문제해결의 대상으로만 간주하기 보다는 이들의 사회경제활동에 대한 참여와 독립성의 증대를 통하여 주체적으로 문제해결에 기여할 수 있도록 여건이 개선되어야 한다. 넷째, 고령화에 따른 사회경제적 부담을 해결하기 위하여 ICT 융합기술을 활용한 u-헬스와 같은 대응의 효율화가 필요하며, 이와 관련해서는 정부의 시범사업 등 주도적인 역할을 통해 사회적인 공감대를 형성해야 한다. 다섯째, 고령화의 위협요인과 고령화 대응을 통한 관련산업의 발전 및 글로벌 경쟁력 강화 등 기회요인의 양측면이 충분히 고려되어야 한다. 제시된 시사점과 더불어 본 연구보고서에서는 특히 고령화 대응 관련산업 가운데 의료보건 및 사회복지서비스의 공공재적인 특성을 고려하여 정책의 주체인 정부의 지도적인 역할과 함께 정부가 주요 이해당사자들의 참여를 독려하고 이들과 협력 관계를 구축할 것을 강조하고 있다.
서 언···················································································································· 1
요약문·················································································································· 11
제1 장 서 론······································································································ 15
제1 절 연구의 필요성 및 목적······································································· 15
제2 절 고령화와 ICT ······················································································ 17
1. 고령화의 현황···························································································· 17
2. 고령화의 파급 영향··················································································· 20
3. 고령화와 ICT 활용의 필요성····································································· 22
4. 고령화에 대한 ICT 활용 대응··································································· 24
제2 장 고령화에 대응하는 국제사회의 ICT 활용 정책····································· 26
제1 절 주요 국가의 현황 및 대응노력··························································· 26
1. 영국············································································································ 30
2. 미국············································································································ 35
3. 일본············································································································ 42
4. 중국············································································································ 47
제2 절 주요 국제기구 및 지역기구에서의 논의············································· 50
1. 국제연합(UN) ····························································································· 51
2. 세계보건기구(WHO) ··················································································· 59
3. 유럽연합(EU) ····························································································· 64
4. 경제협력개발기구(OECD) ·········································································· 72
5. 국제전기통신연합(ITU) ·············································································· 79
제3 절 소결 및 시사점··················································································· 83
제3 장 우리나라의 고령화 대응 정책 및 활동·················································· 86
제1 절 고령화와 ICT에 관한 기본계획·························································· 86
1. 범부처 종합계획 ‘새로마지플랜 2015’(2010. 9) ········································ 87
2. 미래창조과학부 ‘창조비타민프로젝트’(2013. 11) ······································ 94
3. 산업통상자원부 ‘헬스케어 신시장 창출 전략(2014~2021)’(2013. 11) ····· 94
4. 보건복지부 ‘원격의료 법안’(2013. 10) ······················································ 95
5. 미래창조과학부 ‘정보통신 진흥 및 융합 활성화 등에 관한 특별법’
(2014. 2) ···································································································· 98
제2 절 고령화 대응 ICT 활용 정책 사례 및 시사점··································· 100
1. 의료 및 건강관리 분야············································································ 100
2. 사회참여 분야·························································································· 109
제3 절 고령화 대응 ICT 관련 국내 산업 현황············································ 117
1. 고령화 대응 ICT 대표 산업: u-헬스 산업 현황······································ 117
2. 국내 기업의 산업 진출 사례···································································· 118
3. u-헬스에 대한 국내 논의········································································· 123
제4 절 소결 및 시사점················································································· 132
제4 장 고령화 대응 관련 산업 분석································································ 135
제1 절 주요 선행연구··················································································· 135
1. 한국보건산업진흥원(2012) ········································································ 135
2. 생명공학정책연구센터(2013) ···································································· 140
3. 삼성경제연구소(2007) ··············································································· 144
4. 삼성경제연구소(2012) ··············································································· 146
5. 송태민․정상현(2011) ·············································································· 148
6. 전진옥(2009) ····························································································· 149
7. 미래창조과학부(2013a) ············································································· 150
8. KB 금융지주 경영연구소(2014) ······························································· 151
제2 절 고령화 및 ICT 관련 산업의 구조분석·············································· 152
1. 고령화 및 ICT 관련 산업의 분류···························································· 153
2. 고령화 및 ICT 관련 산업의 구조···························································· 155
제3 절 소결 및 시사점················································································· 164
제5 장 결론 및 시사점····················································································· 166
참고문헌············································································································· 174
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