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ICT R&D 성과 변화의 결정요인 분석과 성과 제고 방안 연구: 지식재산권(IP)을 중심으로
제목 ICT R&D 성과 변화의 결정요인 분석과 성과 제고 방안 연구: 지식재산권(IP)을 중심으로
저자 김규남 ·진홍윤· 정원준 조회 9140
게재지 기본연구 권호 기본연구 14-01
언어 KOR 페이지 1-208 (총 208 pages)
PDF pdf열기ICT R&D 성과 변화의 결정요인 분석과 성과 제고 방안 연구: 지식재산권(IP)을 중심으로 발행일 2014.11.30
분류정보 통신 > 통신정책
방송 > 방송정책
IT산업 > IT산업ㆍ시장
최근 글로벌 저성장 기조에 따라 주요 선진국의 연구․혁신 정책은 기업성장과 일자리 창출이 연계된 임무주도형(mission-driven) 혁신 생태계 구축에 초점이 맞춰지고 있다. 이와 더불어 신규 투자 확대보다는 성과 관리 및 검증 강화를 통한 R&D의 효율성 제고와 성과의 질적 성장이 강조되면서 R&D의 대표적인 성과인 특허의 창출과 활용의 중요성도 점차 커지고 있다.
우리나라의 국제특허출원 건수는 세계 5위 수준으로 1만 2,438건(2013년 기준)에 달하고 연구개발 대비 특허 생산성은 2.99건으로 높은 편이지만, 특허를 활용한 수익률은 830만 달러로 상대적으로 저조하다. 따라서 최근 정부의 혁신정책은 주요 선진국과 유사하게 효율적인 국가혁신시스템을 구축하고 기술 이전과 사업화를 강화하기 위해 특허의 양적 성장 못지않게 질적 성장을 강조하고 있다.
특히 우리나라는 창조경제를 새로운 성장 패러다임으로 설정하였는데 이를 뒷받침하기 위해 ICT 혁신 역량을 강화하고 ICT 융합으로 타 산업의 고도화를 달성해야 한다. 이를 위해서는 지식재산으로서 ICT 분야의 특허를 많이 창출하고 이를 타 산업으로 확산하는 것이 필수적이다. 물론 특허가 혁신과 경제성장에 미치는 영향에 대해서는 현재까지도 많은 논란이 진행 중이지만, 특허가 공공재 지식으로서 개방형 혁신과 융합형 혁신을 가속화하고 사회적 수익을 개별적 수익보다 더욱 증대시키는 지식 파급의 순기능 효과를 갖고 있는 점을 고려하면 ICT를 기반으로 지식생태계를 구축하기 위해서는 고품질의 ICT 특허를 많이 창출하는 것이 매우 중요하다.
그러나 우리나라 ICT 부문의 PCT 특허출원 수는 1990년대 후반 이후 지속적인 증가세를 보이면서 2008년에는 3,594개까지 증가하였으나 이후 증가율은 둔화되었으며, ICT 부문의 PCT 특허출원 비중 또한 2008년(48.4%)을 기점으로 이후 점진적으로 감소 추세이다. 이러한 추세 변화는 ICT R&D 환경 변화, ICT 산업의 구조적 특성, 특허 관련 법․제도적 변화 등 다양한 요소에 기인하며, 이들이 추세 변화에 미치는 영향력은 시간이 지남에 따라 달라질 것이다.
따라서 ICT R&D 성과를 강화하고 건전한 지식생태계를 조성하는 정책을 효율적이고 효과적으로 수립하기 위해서는 사전적으로 ICT 부문의 R&D 성과인 특허출원의 변화 추이 및 변화를 유발한 결정요인을 실증적으로 정확히 분석하는 작업이 선행되어야 하며, 이를 기반으로 정책적 시사점을 도출할 필요가 있다. 그럼에도 특허 정보의 분류체계와 산업․경제 정보의 분류체계가 연계되지 못하고, 이를 분석할 만한 적절한 방법론을 찾지 못함에 따라 특허출원 변화를 산업․경제 관점에서 결정요인을 파악하고 이들의 영향력을 정량적으로 실증 분석한 연구는 극소수에 불과하다.
이에 본 연구는 ICT R&D의 대표적인 성과인 특허를 중심으로 시계열상의 변화추이를 조사하고 특허 분류체계와 산업․경제 분류체계를 연계하여 ICT 특허출원 비중 변화를 ICT R&D 환경 변화, ICT 산업의 구조적 특성, 특허 관련 법․제도적 변화 등 산업․경제 관점의 결정요인들로 분해하고 이들의 영향력을 평가하였다.
본 연구에서는 ICT R&D 성과로서 ICT 특허출원 수가 아닌 ICT 특허출원 비중을 고려하였는데 그 이유는 전체 특허출원 수의 영향력을 통제하기 위해서이다.
구체적으로, 요인분해분석 방법론을 사용하여 ICT 특허출원 비중 변화에 영향을 미친 요인을 ICT R&D 효율성, ICT R&D 집약도, ICT 산업구조, ICT 산업규모, 특허 생산성 등 다양한 요인들로 구조적으로 분해하여 이러한 요인들의 영향력을 정량적으로 분석한다. 이를 통해 ICT 연구개발 성과인 지식창출에서 나타나는 구조적 문제점과 지식창출을 저해하는 요인을 실증적으로 파악하여 ICT 지식생태계의 기반 구축을 위한 효율적인 정책방향을 제시하고자 한다.
서 언···················································································································· 1
요약문·················································································································· 11
제1 장 서 론······································································································ 23
제1 절 연구의 배경 및 목적··········································································· 23
제2 절 주요 연구 내용··················································································· 25
제2 장 ICT R&D 환경 변화 분석····································································· 27
제1 절 ICT 산업 동향 분석············································································ 27
1. ICT 산업의 거시 현황··············································································· 27
2. ICT 제조업의 산업구조 변화····································································· 31
제2 절 ICT R&D 패러다임의 변화································································ 36
1. ICT R&D의 역할변화 (정보화→산업육성→융합) ····································· 36
2. 혁신 패러다임의 변화 (추격형→선도형) ··················································· 41
3. ICT 지식생태계 중심의 변화 (정부주도→민간주도) ································· 45
제3 절 특허제도 및 ICT 기업의 특허 전략 변화·········································· 49
1. 특허제도의 역사적 변천 과정···································································· 50
2. ICT 기업의 특허 전략 변화 ····································································· 57
제3 장 국내․외 ICT R&D 투자 및 성과 현황················································ 68
제1 절 국내․외 ICT R&D 투자 현황·························································· 68
1. 국내 ICT R&D 투자·················································································· 68
2. 국외 ICT R&D 투자·················································································· 70
4
제2 절 국내외 ICT R&D 성과 현황 ··························································· 72
1. 국내 ICT 부문의 PCT 특허 추이······························································ 72
2. 해외 주요국의 ICT 부문 PCT 특허 추이·················································· 74
제4 장 ICT R&D 성과창출 변화에 대한 구조적 접근····································· 78
제1 절 요인분해분석(Decomposition analysis)의 이론적 배경······················· 78
1. 요인분해분석의 개념·················································································· 78
2. 선행연구 조사···························································································· 84
제2 절 ICT 특허출원 비중 변화에 대한 요인분해분석·································· 85
1. 분석모형 설정···························································································· 85
2. 특허분류와 산업분류 간 연계···································································· 90
3. ICT 산업의 분류························································································ 95
제3 절 분석 데이터························································································ 98
1. 특허(PCT) 데이터······················································································ 98
2. R&D 데이터····························································································· 100
3. 부가가치 데이터······················································································· 101
4. 실증분석 개요·························································································· 106
제4 절 분석 결과·························································································· 107
1. 우리나라 분석 결과·················································································· 107
2. 해외 주요국 분석 결과············································································ 116
3. 국가별 요인분해분석 결과 비교······························································ 125
제5 절 요약 및 시사점················································································· 127
제5 장 ICT R&D 성과 제고 방안··································································· 130
제1 절 특허의 활용 강화를 위한 제도적 개선 방안···································· 130
1. 특허 활용 강화의 필요성········································································· 130
2. 특허 활용을 위한 법제도적 개선점························································· 133
5
제2 절 특허의 부가가치 생산성 제고 방안·················································· 136
1. ICT 기업의 전략적 특허경영 지원·························································· 136
2. 특허정보 서비스업의 활성화···································································· 143
참고문헌············································································································· 147
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